mangrove wood for smoking
The hydrography is characterized by the Andokat and Rio Del Rey rivers, which converge in an estuary (Olivry, cited in Tadjoung & Effala, 2008). Our research was authorized by the head of the IRAD, Limbe Batoke, and by the Fako Divisional Delegate of the MINEPIA. The least used alternative energy source were coconut shells (Figure 5(c)) and palm kernel waste (Figure 5(d)). (b) Suspended wooden banda. Qualitative data from the interviewers and questionnaires, and quantitative data from respondents’ consumption monitoring sheets, were analyzed for each site with Excel 2010 software. Some only purchased it, and others, in addition to purchasing it, also collected their own wood. Indeed, there was a significant difference (t = 11.559, df = 242, p = .00035) between wood quantities and fish quantities. The amount of wood used was not significantly affected by a fish smoker’s experience (F = .728, df = 242, p = .865) in any community. Direct observations were made of the conditions to which fish smokers were exposed (smoke, heat, flames). A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. Reasons for firewood preference according to respondents. (c) Circular oven. Rubber tree wood was the most used second choice species. However, and perhaps most significantly, it is also due to the fact that the fish smokers surveyed by Djessouho (2015) used very small circular ovens, unlike the fish smokers in our study, the majority of whom used big suspended ovens. This has put severe pressure on mangrove forests, leading to steady deforestation. They use the oldest trees because large logs keep the fire going without refueling. Can't comment on the bottlebrush but I've got a US book here that says the best 2 woods to use when smoking are hickory and mangrove (!) I would also like to thank the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), Limbe-batoke station, for enabling access to the research area, and for providing personnel, equipment, much good work, and knowledge. However, Pouokam (2011), who worked on the firewood sector in the Kribi fisheries, found that smokers used Sambi (Uapaca guineensis). In Cameroon, mangrove forests cover approximately 250,000 hectares and are among the most extensive stands in Africa (Angoni et al., 2015). The questionnaire elicited detailed data about the wood fuel used, such as how, where, and how often wood is collected or purchased, and at what cost. While sometimes used as bait, mullet make an excellent choice for smoking or frying. It has a harder, more dense wood which means it burns hotter and longer when compared to other charcoal types. This has been a common method for preserving meat and fish for millennia in many parts of the world (Kone, 2001). This study also showed that 47% of wood used by fish smokers comes from mangrove forests. As the population increases, coastal resources will continue to come under more and more pressure (Angoni et al., 2015). Firewood origin according to respondents. Villages located far from mangrove forests, or in areas where mangrove supplies have been exhausted, have collection teams to transport firewood on canoes, which they then sell. A balance needs to be found between consumption and preservation: This is the challenge for all parties involved in the fight for sustainable mangrove management in Cameroon. A wide variety of mangrove wood options are available to you, such as hard wood, soft wood, and coconut shell. Use dry wood. It also cools the fire. In our sample, all the fish smokers were women. This has put severe pressure on mangrove forests, leading to steady deforestation. I am also grateful to Pr. (b) Waste from beach. Black mangrove flowers are a popular nectar source for honey bees, leading to the creation of "mangrove honey." Get your smoke from wood – This may seem obvious. Oven preference by zone according to respondents. Timber species such as Ilomba, Paduk, Zingana, and Tali were less commonly used as firewood. The bark was also used in the tanning process as a black dye for animal skins. Figure 5. Mangroves are important not only for the needs of local population, but because they have a significant influence on climate change as they sequester 5 to 6 times more carbon than conventional forests (Bilé, 2012). Mulo and Ngueguim (2014), who worked on an assessment of the utilization of modern fish smoking ovens and their impact on forest conservation in the coastal communities of the south west region Cameroon, also found that over 40% of the firewood used for smoking was mangrove species. Members Profile. Figure 3. The Implications of Wood Exploitation for Fish Smoking on Mangrove Ecosystem Conservation in th... Mongabay.com Scientific Journal, Tropical Conservation Science, Reaches its Second Year of Existence, Angoni, H., Tatchim, A. P., Nkonmeneck, B. We can create ovens that consume less wood," he said. The climate is characterized by a brief dry season and a rainy season that last over nine months. 2020-12-02T18:09:39-08:00 The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study received funding from Dr. Mireille Sylviane DONGMO NGUEPI, lecturer from the University of Buea Cameroon, to whom the author is very grateful. Some could even be classified as industries since they consumed 400€ to 420€ in wood per month (this is during the peak smoking period of 1 or 2 months). This result is also supported by Ndiaye and Diei-Ouadi (2009) who report a result of 2€ of fuel per 100 kg of fish for a cinderblock oven compared to 5€ for a traditional oven. These figures are supported by Chesnes (2009) in his study on the implementation of a Clean Development Mechanism project for the improvement of fish smoking ovens in the Douala-Edea reserve, who found it takes 3 to 4 days to smoke fish in a traditional oven. Figure 2. Our study also found that 52.7% of fish smokers were foreigners, which is contrary to the finding of Fall, Tounkara, Diop, Thiaw, and Thonart (2014), who worked on a socioeconomic and technological study of the production of fermented and dried fish (Guedj) in Senegal, and who found that only 10% of fish smokers were foreigners. The main objective of this study is to contribute to the sustainable management of mangrove forests in Cameroon through assessing the impact of fish smoking activities on mangrove resources. In their study of five communities in the same area, Mulo and Ngueguim (2014), found that 83% of fish smokers used traditional ovens and 11% used metal ovens. Wood is generally the preferred fuel for rural people because it is easily available, dispersed throughout the rural habitat, and can usually be obtained without major costs. The main activity for men was fishing. Questions were designed to elicit gender, marital status, age, study level, number of family members, nationality, and main professional activity (fishing, fish smoker, or fish seller). Wood is transported either by tricycle motorcycles, or by rickshaw or, mainly in the case of fruit tree species, by a person carrying it balanced on their head. When there was a smoking session, the weight of the fish and of the wood used for smoking was measured and recorded. Smoker or charcoal grill. In this Florida Keys fishing video, join us for a day of flats fishing in the lower keys on our flats boat. Our study found that suspended ovens have a ratio (wood quantity in kg/fish quantity in kg) of 2.3 over 53 hr of smoking. Wood purchases occurred weekly, monthly, and sometimes even annually, as sometimes the peak smoking period is only 1 or 2 months. They are closely followed by smokers from Cameroon and Nigeria. T tests were used in order to compare ovens yields and to compare the amount of wood consumed and the quantity of fish smoked. Furthermore, the resulting product is better and less carcinogenic, and therefore could be more valuable. A project aimed at introducing one type of cinderblock ovens (chokor ovens) in the region failed mainly because of insufficient training and monitoring by project managers. All interviews were conducted with the consent of respondents, and confidentiality was assured. Figure 8. The smoking time is also shorter than with a traditional oven, and working conditions (smoke, heat, and fumes) are better. Table 3. Fish smoking is a very important activity in the south west region of Cameroon and the demand for smoked fish continues to grow. A suspended wooden banda may last only 5 months, although, on average, traditional oven lasts about 6 years compared to 13 years for a cinderblock oven. Fishing and fish smoking allows entire families to subsist; nearly 1,018 people were supported by the 243 fish smokers studied. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Respondents gave several reasons to explain their choices concerning firewood. This dependence on red mangrove wood is due to its capacity to produce a great amount of heat energy (Ajonina & Usongo, 2001). Wet wood makes bad smoke. Fifteen percent of respondents did not use any alternative sources of energy saying that wood was sufficient for their physicochemical requirements. Fish smokers acquired firewood in several ways. The mangroves are currently valued for fuel wood use at 4146 Ghanaian cedis (US$2765) per ha within the Efasou community. Fish smokers have well-defined requirements for their activities. N. Z. Feka, Chuyong, and Ajonina (2009) found that the smoking time of a cinderblock oven is 30% less than a traditional oven. Our mangrove wood is 100% legally harvested, processed and exported under the most strict international exports standards and we are shipping the best mangrove charcoal for BBQ all over the world. uuid:f2839f3c-b169-4c67-9999-8eb88f192f10 In fact, many local ordinances forbid harvesting it. It is clear that cinderblock ovens are more economical. (a) Suspended iron banda. Mangrove Charcoal is very hard and dense; it burns hotter and longer if compared to any other natural charcoal. On the other hand, a traditional oven has a shorter life span. Potential Impact of Fish Smoking on Mangrove Resources in Southwest Cameroon, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage, Ngo-Massou, Essomè-Koum, Kottè-Mapoko, & Din, 2014, http://www.journalducameroun.com/article.php?aid=12990, https://infodoc.agroparistech.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=102671, https://www.pourlascience.fr/sd/environnement/du-carbone-sous-les-mangroves-10929.php. Forests are clearly under great pressure. The wildlife is dominated by vertebrate such as fish, birds, and reptiles, but there are also invertebrates such as crabs and molluscs (Ngo-Massou, Essomè-Koum, Kottè-Mapoko, & Din, 2014). This use of mangroves is often of great importance. Creation of a high spatio‐temporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st century (CGMFC‐21), Biology and distribution of mangrove crabs in the Wouri River Estuary, Douala, Cameroon, Evaluation de la qualité microbiologique des poissons Etmalosz fimbriata et Sardinella aurita fumés traditionnellement [Assessment of the microbiological quality of Etmalosz fimbriata and Sardinella aurita fish traditionally smoked], The loss of species: Mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. However, indigenous fishing communities on the coast harvest mangrove wood for household domestic use, in particular for cooking and smoking fish. In Cameroon, mangrove forests — made up of salt-tolerant trees and shrubs found between small streams and the sea — are in danger of becoming extinct because of the tendency of women to harvest them for smoking fish. By continuing to browse Villagers like mangrove wood for limekilns because it’s dense and burns hot enough to fully cook the shells into lime. Promotional Price Vietnam 100% Wood Charcoal from Mangrove for Somalia Smoking Hookah Bars . This questionnaire had several components. The increasing demand for mangrove wood and the steady encroachment and spread of the nypa palm, an invasive mangrove plant… Report Post Likes(0) Quote Reply Posted: 25 Jan 2010 at 12:19pm. Suspended iron bandas were the most common, used by 75.3% of our respondents. The most used alternative source of fuel was waste collected from the beach (Figure 5(a)). Size matters. Wood was sold in variety of ways. Made in South Africa Suppliers/mangrove Wood Smoking Bbq Directory - Offering Wholesale South African Suppliers/mangrove Wood Smoking Bbq from South Africa Suppliers/mangrove Wood Smoking Bbq Manufacturers, Suppliers and Distributors at TradeKey.com I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. Pouokam (2011) found that only 75% of fish smokers have preference for wood. Fifty-two percent of respondents are large-scale smokers and are mainly located in Eyengue, Idenau, and Down Beach. Because there is no electricity in some villages in southwest Cameroon, and also because of population growth, there is considerable pressure on forest resources, which results in increasing deforestation. More wood is used in Down Beach, and Eyengue, and particularly in Idenau, than in other communities. Besides mangrove forests, this study revealed that 35% of wood comes from continental forests and 3% from home gardens.
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