cost of seagrass restoration
Innovative Techniques for Large-scale Seagrass Restoration Using Zostera marina (eelgrass) Seeds. This knowledge combined with site-specific studies can be used to inform future development and restoration plans in terms of ecological engineering. Working for Water (WfW) Programme. The successes currently experienced in terrestrial restoration have been built upon decades of knowledge and experience gained through numerous studies and experiments, many of which were not successful initially but were invaluable for understanding why early restoration attempts did not work, and allowed for improvements to restoration methods and techniques to be made (Nellemann and Corcoran, 2010). January 25, 2018. Fish. doi: 10.1126/science.1219973, van der Heide, T., van Nes, E. H., Geerling, G. W., Smolders, A. J. P., Bouma, T. J., and van Katwijk, M. M. (2007). Sci. Biol. We have now reached a point where ecologically meaningful large-scale seagrass restoration is possible given enough scientific, community, and political support. Iron additions reduce sulfate reduction rates and improve seagrass growth on organic-enriched carbonate sediments. 63, 984–993. Adelaide: South Australian Research and Development Institute Aquatic Sciences. Sci. Australian shellfish ecosystems: past distribution, current status and future direction. Unintended recruitment has already been reported, for example, in Singapore, where a small seagrass meadow formed on a reclaimed shoreline behind a breakwater (Yaakub et al., 2014; Lai et al., 2018). 1, 587–597. The effects of manipulation of sedimentary iron and organic matter on sediment biogeochemistry and seagrasses in a subtropical carbonate environment. Phycol. Monitoring of physically restored seagrass meadows reveals a slow rate of recovery for Thalassia testudinum. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110512-135747, Ambo-Rappe, R., and Yasir, I. doi: 10.1111/mec.14939, Sinclair, E. A., Verduin, J. J., Krauss, S. L., Hardinge, J., Anthony, J. M., and Kendrick, G. A. An Australian example from Western Australia’s Dampier Peninsula includes a collaboration between Western Scientists and the Bardi Jawi Indigenous rangers who have joint objectives to incorporate indigenous knowledge into the management of over 250 km of Kimberley coastline (Depczynski et al., 2019). Munkes, B. In contrast, some species have a more confined range such as Posidonia sinuosa, which is endemic to western and southern Australia (Short et al., 2010). Wabnitz, C. C., Andréfouët, S., Torres-Pulliza, D., Müller-Karger, F. E., and Kramer, P. A. Conserv. 7, 393–396. Analysis of seagrass restoration trials. Seed dispersal in a marine macrophyte: implications for colonization and restoration. However, in recent times this situation has changed, with the relative frequency of La Niña climate events and severe storms leading to sustained losses (McKenna et al., 2015) and cases where natural seagrass recovery is unlikely. Auckland: Department of Conservation, 90. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2009.10.004. Recovery of Danish coastal ecosystems after reductions in nutrient loading: a holistic ecosystem approach. 3, 1509–1520. There is much that can be learned from unsuccessful restoration attempts, or unexpected outcomes that largely go unpublished, and a platform for knowledge sharing would greatly aid in disseminating information and generating greater discussion between seagrass scientists, managers and practitioners. Sci. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2012.00873.x, Statton, J., Dixon, K. W., Hovey, R. K., and Kendrick, G. A. Bot. doi: 10.1007/s12237-015-9980-0. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.03.034. Ecological implications for assisted migration in Canadian forests. Denmark. The effects of manipulating microhabitat size and variability on tropical seawall biodiversity: field and flume experiments. Successful seagrass-restoration methods include transplanting shoots, mechanized planting and, more recently, biodegradable mats. Assistant Professor Sarah Lester received $365,699 for a research prject titled … Ecol. Restor. Seagrass restoration is a rapidly maturing discipline, but improved restoration practices are needed to enhance the success of future programs. Past and ongoing shifts in Joshua tree distribution support future modeled range contraction. To track changes in eelgrass, DMF maps eelgrass throughout the state and participates in SeagrassNet, an international seagrass monitoring network. Climate-related genetic variation in drought-resistance of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). (2007). Identifying knowledge gaps in seagrass research and management: an Australian perspective. Whilst restoration policy is rapidly being embedded into international agreements (e.g., New Deal for Nature, Convention on Biological Diversity Conference of Parties 15 (COP), and climate change challenges for COP26 Glasgow), it is yet to filter down adequately into Australian and New Zealand state or federal government policies for seagrass restoration. A predetermined amount of seeds is mixed with sieved fine-grained sediment (median grain size <100 μm), loaded into sealant tubes, and injected into the sediment using calibrated sealant guns up to a depth of 1–4 cm, depending on the depth that the seeds of the target species naturally recruit from. (2017). Biol. Restoration of the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica-temporal variability and long-term success. These losses, and the associated losses in ecosystem goods and services, can have major ecological, socioeconomic, and political ramifications (Smale et al., 2019). There are a variety of new restoration tools and techniques that have been developed and trialed internationally that show relatively high degrees of success. Ser. In certain situations, coastal development will proceed, and loss of seagrass habitat is inevitable. 53, 967–972. 2001; price levels reflect 2001 dollars). Ser. Building evolutionary resilience for conserving biodiversity under climate change. Biol. Environ. Conserv. Rev. Local and regional scale habitat heterogeneity contribute to genetic adaptation in a commercially important marine mollusc (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia. A multiscale approach to seagrass recovery in Tampa Bay, Florida. Restoration Ecology 18(4): 514-526. doi: 10.1038/s41559-019-0999-7. Restoration success rates are improving globally, and while future failures cannot be ruled out, they will offer guidance for improving subsequent attempts. Such approaches can help to broaden the genetic basis of restored populations to overcome risks maladaptation by providing new genetic variants for selection to act on (Prober et al., 2015; Wood et al., 2019). This is further exacerbated by a lack of funding, as restoration is often perceived as too expensive and wrought with failures. As to whether a modified or different set of considerations are required for successful tropical restoration requires an increased research focus on understanding the basics. Bot. Sci. The use of novel and potentially more efficient monitoring techniques should also be expanded upon, such as the use of remote sensing or drones (Duffy et al., 2018; Nahirnick et al., 2019; Phinn et al., 2018). Passive restoration efforts, or rehabilitation, have reduced anthropogenic stressors to facilitate natural regeneration, such as the improvement of water quality through removal of sewage outfalls and agricultural run-off to tackle eutrophication (Bryars and Neverauskas, 2004; Riemann et al., 2016). The linkages between healthy shellfish and seagrass are a stepping stone to increase focus on seagrass restoration in a holistic manner. 7:024006. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/7/2/024006, Grech, A., Coles, R., and Marsh, H. (2011). These have ranged from small-scale pilot studies (e.g., Irving et al., 2010) to large-scale transplantation trials (e.g., West et al., 1990; Bastyan and Cambridge, 2008), involving both manual and mechanical planting (e.g., Paling et al., 2001), and a wide range of anchoring methods [e.g., artificial seagrass (West et al., 1990; Campbell and Paling, 2003; Matheson et al., 2017), biodegradable pots (Kirkman, 1999), and hooks or pegs (Bastyan and Cambridge, 2008)]. Anderson, T. J., Morrison, M., MacDiarmid, A., Clark, M., D’Archino, R., Nelson, W., et al. Until now! bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2020.05.06.080127, Martin, V., Smith, L., Bowling, A., Christidis, L., Lloyd, D., and Pecl, G. (2016). Science 321, 345–346. Ecol. (2017). (2015). Aquat. Seagrass on the edge: land-use practices threaten coastal seagrass communities in Sabah, Malaysia. Mol. Ser. 10, 41–71. Appl. doi: 10.1111/conl.12605, Sinclair, E. A., Anthony, J. M., Greer, D., Ruiz-Montoya, L., Evans, S. M., Krauss, S. L., et al. Furthermore, Statton et al. (2018). An adapted version of this method is currently being trialed for underwater seeding. 83, 483–490. (2006). Facilitating recruitment of Amphibolis as a novel approach to seagrass rehabilitation in hydrodynamically active waters. It is important to note that seagrass restoration is at the stage where effective methods are still in development, and while we are going through this phase, many failures are to be expected. (1999). Catchment Management Framework. Environ. Paul-Burke, K., Burke, J., Te, Ūpokorehe Resource, Management Team, Bluett, C., et al. The reviewer RL declared a past supervisory role with one of the authors OD to the handling editor. Impacts of oyster reef restoration on primary productivity and nutrient dynamics in tidal creeks of the north central Gulf of Mexico. “Reproductive, dispersal and recruitment strategies in Australian seagrasses,” in Seagrasses of Australia: Structure, Ecology and Conservation, eds A. W. D. Larkum, G. A. Kendrick, and P. J. Ralph (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 665–704. (2019b). Cairns: James Cook University, 44. (2012). Ecol. 28, 730–736. Seagrass in Southeast Asia: a review of status and knowledge gaps, and a road map for conservation. “Set-backs and successes: seagrass restoration in the Dutch Wadden Sea,” Paper Presented to World Seagrass Conference, Singapore. Rodríguez, J. P., Keith, D. A., Rodríguez-Clark, K. M., Murray, N. J., Nicholson, E., et al. Ecol. The technique is also currently suitable for seeds between 0.5 and 4 mm in size, however, the equipment needed can be adjusted accordingly for different seed sizes. (2018). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190914. (2019). Evidence of genomic adaptation to climate in Eucalyptus microcarpa: implications for adaptive potential to projected climate change. Mar. Assisted colonization is not a viable conservation strategy. (2007). Silliman, B. R., Schrack, E., He, Q., Cope, R., Santoni, A., van der Heide, T., et al. Ecol. doi: 10.1007/s10531-012-0313-3, Serrano, O., Lovelock, C. E., Atwood, T. B., Macreadie, P. I., Canto, R., Phinn, S., et al. A comparative test of mechanized and manual transplanting of eelgrass, Evaluation of a mechanical seed planter for transplanting, Innovative Techniques for Large-scale Seagrass Restoration Using, Innovative techniques for large-scale collection, processing, and storage of eelgrass (, VIMS brings expertise in seagrass restoration down under, Eelgrass restoration aids overall recovery of coastal bays, Understanding how different physical factors influence seedling establishment at different restoration sites, Investigating the potential importance of high-density, repeated seeding at promising restoration sites. Relationships between adaptive and neutral genetic diversity and ecological structure and functioning: a meta-analysis. It costs about $45,000 to restore an acre of seagrass if you count only the cost of collecting, preparing, and planting the seagrass plugs (Fonseca et al. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-71354-0_15, Piazza, B. P., Banks, P. D., and La Peyre, M. K. (2005). Biodivers. Seagrass wrack has many important ecological functions (Kirkman and Kendrick, 1997; Ince et al., 2007; Del Vecchio et al., 2017), but can also pose problems for coastal managers as its over-accumulation is often viewed as a nuisance by the public and high costs are incurred in their removal (Macreadie et al., 2017). Similarly, carbon and nutrient cycling was disrupted (Smale et al., 2019). Ecol. doi: 10.1038/s41558-018-0096-y, Aronson, J., Goodwin, N., Orlando, L., Eisenberg, C., and Cross, A. T. (2020). Such studies need to take into account the different characteristics of Australian and New Zealand seagrass seeds, which have varying lengths of dormancy and sensitivity to desiccation that will affect the efficacy of seed storage (Orth et al., 2000; Statton et al., 2012). Adapt. NIWA Report no. Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observa-tions from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt- 137. Conserv. Silver Spring: NOAA. Seagrass meadows continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts, so it is imperative that we attempt to stem the decline and work toward restoring degraded habitats. J. Appl. Available online at: https://ozfish.org.au/projects/seeds-for-snapper/ (accessed March 3, 2019). TEK is useful in countering perceptions around “shifting baselines,” especially in “pristine” conservation areas (Jardine, 2019), and observations and whole system approaches to ecosystem health and climate change (e.g., Mantyka-Pringle et al., 2017; Nursey-Bray et al., 2019). A practical guide to the application of the IUCN red list of ecosystems criteria. (2016). Ecosyst. However, scientists at the University of Western Australia are currently developing an approach to collect, process, and remotely deliver seeds of Posidonia australis, and have seen some early successes at the trial stages1. Some of the key ecosystem services provided by seagrasses include coastal protection (Ondiviela et al., 2014; Boudouresque et al., 2016), nutrient cycling (Hemminga and Duarte, 2000; McGlathery et al., 2007), pathogen reduction (Lamb et al., 2017), storage of sedimentary carbon (Macreadie et al., 2014; Serrano et al., 2019), and the provision of nursery grounds for many species that support fisheries (de la Torre-Castro et al., 2014; Tuya et al., 2014; Nordlund et al., 2018b). Front. Insights into the assisted colonization debate from Australia. Assessment of the Effects of Foreshore Nourishment and Mitigation Projects on Seagrass Ecosystems (SRMP-004). Bot. Innovative techniques for large-scale seagrass restoration using Zostera marina (eelgrass) seeds. Mediterranean seagrass growth and demography responses to experimental warming. doi: 10.1111/rec.13170. Estuar. Grass Begets Grass. Like seagrasses, shellfish reefs are also some of the most degraded marine ecosystems globally (Beck et al., 2011), and a cross-ecosystem restoration approach could benefit both oyster reefs and seagrasses. A., Tan, M. H., Young, M., Ahrens, C., Cocomazzo, M., et al. Yet, knowledge gaps still exist, which are discussed in the following sections. (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.02.008, Marbà, N., and Duarte, C. M. (2010). Restor. Front. 15, 717–728. Success will require accurate forecasting, which requires rigorous species, site, habitat, and methodological data. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration. Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2005.00072.x, Schanz, A., and Asmus, H. (2003). Impact of light limitation on seagrasses. Conserv. The establishment of water-clarity goals to reduce sediment and nutrient inputs from upland sources, tidal shorelines, tidal resuspension, and estuarine processes will facilitate seagrass restoration and recovery. (2015). (2013) used Posidonia oceanica seedlings from beach-cast fruits for seagrass plantings and obtained relatively high success, with 44% survival for 3 years. (2002). Gl. Res. Terrados et al. (2012). (1994). The success of this technique could be due to the addition of iron into the sediment when the nail corrodes. Canberra, CBR: Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. Sci. Programs need to be holistic and focus on the landscapes and associated benefits, rather than just a single species. doi: 10.1071/MF12032, Statton, J., Dixon, K. W., Irving, A. D., Jackson, E. L., Kendrick, G. A., Orth, R. J., et al. Consequently, projections of rising sea surface temperatures and more frequent heatwave events pose a significant risk to both natural and restored seagrass populations (Smale et al., 2019). Unlikely nomads: settlement, establishment, and dislodgement processes of vegetative seagrass fragments. (2013). What is ecological engineering? Biogeochem 87, 113–126. 20 Ecol. (2014). (2006). (2006). Ecol. Or, at least, recent studies about seagrass restoration report high costs and low success rates. 67, 372–381. Seagrasses are marine angiosperms that grow in the coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica (Cullen-Unsworth and Unsworth, 2016), providing a wide range of ecosystem services to coastal communities (Nordlund et al., 2018a). (2000). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-93043-5_15, Williams, S. L. (2001). doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.02.010, Lefcheck, J. S., Marion, S. R., and Orth, R. J. Evol. Seagrass depth limits. Pollut. Natural hardwood is a favorite flooring for people who like the idea of using mostly natural materials in their flooring, but it can get expensive. Change Biol. Seagrass practitioners, indeed all marine restoration practitioners, can benefit from restoration science and practice that has been developed over decades in terrestrial ecosystems and could be applied in marine environments. Under current estimates of the economic cost of $41 per ton of CO 2 and 2011 estimates of restored seagrass coverage at the VCR LTER of 1700 ha , the restored seagrass provides an estimated social cost of approximately $7,000 yr-1 or $4.10 ha-1 yr-1 of carbon storage. doi: 10.1007/s00227-016-2861-7. Ecol. Ecol. doi: 10.3354/meps09596. Newell, R. I., and Koch, E. W. (2004). We compared seedling establishment achieved by a mechanical seed planter with seeds broadcast on the sediment surface by hand. 281:20140878. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0878, Miller, A. D., Coleman, M. A., Clark, J., Cook, R., Naga, Z., Doblin, M. A., et al. Shelf Sci. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2008.00045.x, Browne, L., Wright, J. W., Fitz-Gibbon, S., Gugger, P. F., and Sork, V. L. (2019). Mar. Nevertheless, the proposed NPS-FM and proposed National Environmental Standard for Freshwater do provide increased protections for coastal wetlands from activities including disturbance of the bed and removal of indigenous vegetation. doi: 10.1007/s10750-015-2333-y, Broadhurst, L. M., Lowe, A., Coates, D. J., Cunningham, S. A., McDonald, M., Vesk, P. A., et al. Restor. How general are positive relationships between plant population size, fitness and genetic variation? One example of this is the Seagrass Restoration Network2, which was established in 2015 to link researchers, managers and practitioners worldwide and facilitate the sharing of knowledge and tools for seagrass conservation and restoration. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2010.00690.x, Byars, S. G., Papst, W., and Hoffmann, A. 18, 83–97. This review aims to highlight some of the recent seagrass losses in Australia and New Zealand, and emphasize the seagrass restoration successes we have experienced. While long-term monitoring in this study has shown that T. testudinum recolonization was still incomplete at 7 years (Furman et al., 2019), Tanner and Theil (2019) have found both Zostera and Posidonia seagrasses naturally recruiting within patches of restored Amphibolis. doi: 10.1126/science.1157897, Holmer, M., Duarte, C., and Marbá, N. (2005). Restoration research in Australia and New Zealand has focused on small-scale experimental tests using a variety of techniques ranging from the planting of sprigs (seagrass fragments) or plugs (seagrass cores) to seed-based restoration (Supplementary Table S1; Figure 1). Whilst many types of habitat suitability models exist, the principle of spatial planning and suitability indexes can be expanded to include development of restoration suitability models which encompass not only the environmental and physical suitability for seagrasses, but cultural, logistical, and social data as well. The use of shoots has been widely used in restoration. In such cases conservation of remnant populations persisting in areas more likely to support the species under climate change becomes a priority, and interventions, such as assisted range expansion, to facilitate species movement to climatically suitable areas may need to be considered (Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2008; Cole et al., 2011; Winder et al., 2011; Wadgymar et al., 2015). Beyond its use as a nutritional supplement, seagrass wrack can also be a valuable source of transplant material. Typically, this can be determined empirically using quantitative (e.g., glass house or common garden experiments; Byars et al., 2007; Browne et al., 2019; Miller et al., 2019a) or correlative (e.g., genomic assessments for genotype x environment associations; Jordan et al., 2017; Miller et al., 2019b) genetic approaches. In New Zealand, a national scale inventory of seagrass has recently been collated by the Department of Conservation’s SeaSketch project. The decline in seagrass habitats has clear and detrimental ecological and socio-economic consequences, and stemming this decline through facilitating recovery is urgently needed. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.12.008. A lot of the hard work has now occurred, and we should now build upon our collective knowledge, engage with emerging tools, technology, and techniques, and maintain and build our research effort into seagrass restoration in Australia and New Zealand. doi: 10.1890/1540-929520075[153:IPIIAR]2.0.CO;2, Hampe, A., and Petit, R. J. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12988, Wang, T. L., Wang, G. Y., Innes, J., Nitschke, C., and Kang, H. J. 14, 2507–2542. Consequently, selecting genetically diverse meadow(s) as a donor source is important for maximizing restoration success (Reynolds et al., 2012, 2013). Ecol. Strategic Review and Development of an R&D plan, eds A. Butler and P. Jernakoff (Clayton: CSIRO Publishing), 65–115. doi: 10.3354/meps10211, Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Hughes, L., McIntyre, S., Lindenmayer, D. B., Parmesan, C., Possingham, H. P., et al. For example, the seeds of Zostera spp. Part I: a comparison of techniques and associated costs. 40, 217–225. Transplantation as a method for restoring the seagrass Posidonia australis. For instance, mine site rehabilitation practices considerably focus on the preparation, composition, form and microbial community of top soils before planting (Cooke and Johnson, 2002). Bull. Glob. Ecol. The specific goal was to develop techniques and infrastructure to fully exploit potential mechanized seed-harvesting capabilities, and to identify optimal conditions for storage and survival of large volumes of harvested seeds. 21, 530–536. A. J. M., Bourne, D. G., Altier, C., Hein, M. Y., Fiorenza, E. A., et al. Lastly, more long-term and regular monitoring of seagrass meadows is needed to understand rates and patterns of seagrass loss, the likely drivers of these losses, identify potential restoration sites, and effectively determine the success of intervention (Duffy et al., 2019). Strat. J. Exp. 33, 1355–1364. Gold Coast: Griffith University. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia are important landowners and managers of coastal land and sea Country through native title bodies, cultural and natural resource management organizations, and other corporations (McLeod et al., 2018). Human assistance isn’t always necessary, though. Trans. However, there is as yet no similar requirement for coastal wetlands (which include seagrass meadows to 2 m below low water). Cole, K. L., Ironside, K., Eischeid, J., Garfin, G., Duffy, P. B., and Toney, C. (2011). Hamilton: NIWAR. Emerging approaches focusing on holistic and collaborative restoration practices have also recently been highlighted, aimed at creating a “global restorative culture” in order to improve human, and ecosystem health (Aronson et al., 2020). Availale at: https//www.pactomataatlantica.org.br/the-pact (accessed May 28, 2020). B., Orth, R. J., Dennison, W. C., Olyarnik, S., et al. Ecol. 2004. This requires extensive pre-planning and sufficient time to consult with Traditional Owners prior to a project commencing. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.09.007, Jänes, H., Macreadie, P. I., Nicholson, E., Ierodioconou, D., Reeves, S., Taylor, M. D., et al. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2015.07.004. 61, 269–288. Ecol. 14, 68–71. Irving, A. D., Tanner, J. E., Seddon, S., Miller, D., Collings, G. J., Wear, R. J., et al. Guidelines for Ethical Research in Australian Indigenous Studies. The purpose of this research was to develop methodologies for achieving the full potential for large-scale restoration presented by mechanized eelgrass seed harvesting.
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